gtag('config', 'AW-11112402089');

Plastic Moulders UK Article | Demystifying Part Warp: Analysing Pressure Gradients, Polymer Temperature, and Their Effects

Plastic Moulders UK Article | Demystifying Part Warp: Analysing Pressure Gradients, Polymer Temperature, and Their Effects on Residual Shear Stress and Shear Rate


The following article is from Ledwell Plastics, Plastic Moulders UK

When it comes to the manufacturing of plastic parts, one of the most common challenges faced is part warp. The phenomenon of part warp can be frustrating and costly, often resulting in rejections, rework, and even production delays. However, by understanding the underlying factors that contribute to part warp, such as pressure gradients and polymer temperature, manufacturers can take proactive measures to prevent or minimise this issue. In this blog post, we will delve into the intricate details of part warp, exploring its causes and effects on residual shear stress and shear rate. By demystifying these complex concepts and providing practical insights, we aim to equip manufacturers with the knowledge and tools necessary to effectively address part warp and ensure the production of high-quality plastic parts.

1. Understanding part warp: Causes and consequences

Understanding part warp is crucial in the manufacturing process, as it can have significant consequences on the final product’s quality and performance. Part warp refers to the distortion or deformation that occurs in a plastic component during the cooling process after moulding. It is a commonly encountered issue that can lead to dimensional inaccuracies, poor aesthetics, and even functional problems. Several factors can contribute to part warp, with pressure gradients and polymer temperature being two key influencers. Pressure gradients occur when there is an uneven distribution of pressure within the mould cavity during the injection moulding process. This can result from variations in material flow, gate design, or the filling pattern. High-pressure areas can lead to increased material flow, resulting in excess poly

plastic moulders uk

mer filling certain regions of the mould cavity faster than others. Conversely, low-pressure regions can cause insufficient filling, leaving voids or thin sections. These imbalances in material distribution can lead to uneven cooling rates, which ultimately result in part warp. Polymer temperature also plays a crucial role in part warp. During the cooling phase, the polymer undergoes thermal contraction, which can cause distortion if not uniformly controlled. If sections of the part cool faster than others, thermal stresses build up and can cause warping. Factors such as material composition, mould design, and cooling mechanisms can influence polymer temperature distribution. The consequences of part warp can vary depending on the specific application and requirements of the component. It can result in dimensional variations, making the part incompatible with assembly or causing functional issues. Aesthetically, part warp can lead to visible deformities, surface defects, or even part failure. Understanding the causes and consequences of part warp is essential for manufacturers to implement effective mitigation strategies. This involves careful design considerations, including gate placement, mould design optimisation, and material selection. Additionally, controlling process parameters such as injection pressure, melt temperature, and cooling rate can help minimise the occurrence of part warp. By addressing pressure gradients and polymer temperature distribution, manufacturers can strive to produce high-quality components with minimal distortion and ensure optimal performance and customer satisfaction.

2. Pressure gradients: A key factor in part warp

When it comes to part warp in the manufacturing of plastic components, pressure gradients play a crucial role. Understanding and analysing pressure gradients can help demystify the causes behind part warp and provide insights into effective mitigation strategies. Pressure gradients refer to the variation in pressure experienced across different sections of a mould during the injection moulding process.

These variations can arise from a multitude of factors, including variations in polymer temperature, flow rate, and the design of the mould itself. The uneven distribution of pressure within a mould can lead to uneven cooling and solidification of the molten polymer, resulting in part warp. The variations in pressure can cause different rates of cooling and shrinkage across the part, leading to distortions and deformations. Analysing and managing pressure gradients is essential to minimise part warp. One effective approach is to optimise the design of the mould by incorporating features that promote uniform pressure distribution. This can include the strategic placement of cooling channels, the use of venting systems to release trapped air, and the implementation of proper gate design. Furthermore, careful monitoring and control of polymer temperature during the injection moulding process can help mitigate pressure gradients and minimise part warp. Maintaining consistent temperature throughout the mould cavity ensures uniform cooling and reduces the likelihood of uneven shrinkage. It is also important to consider the shear stress and shear rate experienced by the polymer during the injection moulding process, as they can influence pressure gradients and subsequently affect part warp. High shear stresses and rapid shear rates can result in non-uniform polymer flow, leading to uneven pressure distribution and subsequent part distortions. By understanding the correlation between pressure gradients, polymer temperature, residual shear stress, and shear rate, manufacturers can take proactive measures to mitigate part warp and enhance the overall quality of their plastic components. In conclusion, pressure gradients are a key factor contributing to part warp in the injection moulding process. Analysing and managing these gradients, along with considerations of polymer temperature, shear stress, and shear rate, can help manufacturers effectively address and minimise part warp issues, leading to improved product consistency and customer satisfaction.

3. Polymer temperature: Its impact on part warp

Polymer temperature plays a crucial role in the phenomenon of part warp. Understanding how it impacts the warping of plastic parts is key to achieving high-quality, dimensionally stable products. When a polymer is heated, it undergoes thermal expansion, causing it to expand in size. As the polymer cools down, it contracts, returning to its original dimensions. However, if the cooling process is not uniform or controlled properly, residual stresses can accumulate within the material, leading to part warp. The temperature at which the polymer is processed and cooled significantly affects the degree of part warp. If the cooling rate is too rapid, temperature gradients can form within the material, causing uneven contraction and resulting in warping. On the other hand, if the cooling rate is too slow,

Plastic components

the polymer may remain at elevated temperatures for an extended period, leading to excessive relaxation and potential warping as well. To mitigate part warp caused by improper temperature control, it is crucial to monitor and control the cooling process carefully. This can be achieved through techniques such as adjusting cooling rates, using cooling fixtures, or employing cooling media to facilitate uniform temperature distribution. Additionally, optimising the mould design and incorporating cooling channels can help regulate the polymer’s temperature and minimise temperature gradients. Furthermore, it is important to consider the polymer’s specific thermal properties during the processing stage. Different polymers have their own unique thermal behaviours, including their coefficient of thermal expansion and glass transition temperature. Understanding these properties and adjusting the processing conditions accordingly can help minimise part warp. In conclusion, the temperature at which a polymer is processed and cooled plays a significant role in part warp. By carefully controlling and monitoring the cooling process, selecting appropriate materials, and optimising mould design, manufacturers can minimise the effects of temperature gradients, reduce residual stresses, and achieve high-quality, dimensionally stable plastic parts.

4. Analysing residual shear stress and shear rate

When it comes to understanding part warp in manufacturing processes, analysing residual shear stress and shear rate is crucial. Residual shear stress refers to the internal stress that remains within a material after it has undergone deformation. Shear rate, on the other hand, measures the rate at which adjacent layers of a material slide past each other. Analysing residual shear stress and shear rate can provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of part warp. High residual shear stress indicates that there is excessive internal stress within the material, which can lead to deformation and warping. By identifying and addressing the factors contributing to high residual shear stress, manufacturers can mitigate part warp issues. Similarly, studying shear rate helps in understanding the speed and intensity at which material layers are moving relative to each other. A high shear rate can result in uneven material flow and increased internal friction, both of which can contribute to part warp. By analysing shear rate, manufacturers can identify areas of the manufacturing process where adjustments may be needed to minimise shear-induced warping.

injection moulding quality

To analyse residual shear stress and shear rate, various techniques can be employed, such as numerical simulations, experimental testing, and rheological studies. Numerical simulations involve using advanced software to model and simulate the behaviour of materials under different conditions, allowing for the prediction of residual shear stress and shear rate. Experimental testing involves subjecting materials to controlled conditions and measuring the resulting residual shear stress and shear rate. This can be done through techniques like mechanical testing, thermal analysis, or microscopy. Rheological studies involve analysing the flow behaviour of materials, particularly their viscosity and elasticity, which are directly related to shear stress and shear rate. Rheological measurements can provide valuable data on how a material responds to different levels of stress, temperature, and deformation, aiding in the understanding of part warp mechanisms. By analysing residual shear stress and shear rate, manufacturers can gain a deeper understanding of the factors contributing to part warp and develop targeted strategies to minimise its occurrence. This knowledge can lead to more efficient manufacturing processes, improved product quality, and reduced waste, ultimately benefiting both manufacturers and customers.

We hope you have enjoyed our Plastic Moulders UK Article.

To find out more about injection moulding services please contact Benn Simms, Managing Director of Ledwell.


Injection Moulding

Injection Moulding Process – The Vital Role of Mould Temperature

Injection Moulding Process and Mould Temperature

Plastics Injection Mould Tool

Injection moulding is a popular technique in manufacturing, enabling the production of a vast array of components with intricate designs and diverse materials. Given the efficiency of the injection moulding process and its adaptability, it is used across numerous sectors, including automotive, electronics, and healthcare.

One of the most important aspects of injection moulding is mould temperature, this factor can significantly impact the quality of the production and the parts that are being produced. Effective temperature control is critical for preventing quality issues such as shrinkage, stresses and warping from developing in the plastic. It is important that a balance between temperature of the cooling fluid and the rate of mould cooling is controlled.

This article delves into the importance of mould temperature in the injection moulding process, exploring its influence on the various stages and the resulting outcomes.

Defining Mould Temperature

Mould temperature refers to the temperature of the mould surface itself. It is a crucial factor during the injection moulding process as it determines how the product heats up and cools down. This temperature fluctuation significantly affects the final look, feel, and quality of the product.

Importance of Mould Temperature Control

The precision of mould temperature control is a vital aspect of the injection moulding process. The goal is to maintain the mould surface temperature within a specific range to ensure optimal conditions for the plastic material to flow, fill the mould cavity, and solidify into the desired shape.

The mould temperature is typically controlled using cooling or heating channels within the mould. These channels carry a coolant, often water, that regulates the mould’s temperature by either removing or adding heat. The design of these channels, including their diameter, number, location, and distance from the mould’s surface, is crucial to the performance of the moulded part.

Mould Temperature and Material Behaviour

The mould temperature plays a significant role in determining the behaviour of the plastic during the injection moulding process. For instance, in amorphous polymers like Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate, higher mould temperatures result in lower levels of moulded-in stress. Consequently, the final product has better impact resistance, stress-crack resistance, and fatigue performance.

On the other hand, in semi-crystalline plastics, the mould temperature is a key factor in determining the degree of crystallinity in the polymer. The degree of crystallinity influences many performance parameters, including creep resistance, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and dimensional stability at elevated temperatures.

Mould Temperature and Injection Pressure

The mould temperature also impacts the injection pressure required during the injection moulding process. The injection pressure is the force that propels the plastic to flow, and it varies depending on the mould temperature. A higher mould temperature reduces the viscosity of the molten plastic, making it easier to flow and fill the mould. Conversely, a lower mould temperature increases the plastic’s viscosity, requiring a higher injection pressure to fill the mould.

Mould Temperature and Injection Time

Another critical parameter influenced by mould temperature is the injection time, which refers to the time taken for the plastic melt to fill the cavity. The injection time must be carefully adjusted according to the mould temperature to ensure that the mould is completely filled before the plastic solidifies. This precision in setting the injection time is crucial for improving the surface quality of the products and reducing dimensional variance.

Importance of Mould Locking Pressure

To resist the injection pressure, it is necessary to use mould locking pressure. The objective is to calculate a suitable value considering the projected area. The projected area of injection moulded parts is the maximum area seen from the direction of the clamping force. The appropriate mould locking pressure helps to maintain the integrity of the mould and ensure that the moulded part accurately represents the design.

Back Pressure and Its Role

Back pressure refers to the pressure that must be produced and exceeded before the screw retreats. Although a high back pressure is beneficial for pigment dispersion and plastic melting, it prolongs the screw’s return time, reduces the length of the fibre in the filled plastic, and increases the stress on the injection moulding machine. Therefore, the back pressure should be as low as possible, generally not exceeding 20% of the injection pressure.

Mould Temperature and the Cooling Process

A significant phase of the injection moulding process influenced by mould temperature is the cooling process. The objective of the cooling process is to lower the temperature of the moulded plastic to the point where it solidifies. Once the plastic solidifies, it can be demoulded. The cooling process needs to be carefully controlled to minimise warpage, twisting, or other shrinkage-related problems.

Mould Temperature and Its Impact on Final Products

The mould temperature significantly affects the final properties of a moulded product. A product cooled too quickly could become brittle and crack under pressure or force. On the other hand, slow cooling could result in a part with lower stress resistance and a higher propensity for warping or distortion. Hence, the mould temperature should be carefully regulated to balance these factors and produce a high-quality moulded part.

Key Takeaways

In conclusion, mould temperature plays a pivotal role in the injection moulding process. It influences the behaviour and transformation of the material, the injection pressure and time, the cooling process, and the final properties of the moulded part. By carefully controlling the mould temperature, manufacturers can optimise the injection moulding process to produce high-quality, durable, and precise moulded parts. Therefore, understanding and managing mould temperature is a critical aspect of successful injection moulding production.

To find out more about the injection moulding process, mould temperature control and mould tool design please contact Benn Simms Managing Director of Ledwell

Injection Moulding



You don’t need to take our word for it. Here’s what our customers have to say.

  • We are only a small customer to them but always feel valued, would not hesitate to recommend them.

    Andy McCaughan Avatar Andy McCaughan

    Great injection moulding company! High-quality services and friendly and helpful staff. Highly recommended!

    Aditi Dharmesh Avatar Aditi Dharmesh

    Great people, true British manufacturing thoroughbred

    Peter Wilkinson Avatar Peter Wilkinson

    Great place to work with likeminded brilliant people.

    Benn Simms Avatar Benn Simms
  • Great blokes on Goods in.


    Manufacturers of High Quality Injection Moulded Plastic Products #InjectionMolding #Toolmakers #Moulders

    Balu Nandigam Avatar Balu Nandigam

    10/10 would go again

    72gaming 72gaming Avatar 72gaming 72gaming